Computer Organization and Operating System


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Detailed Syllabus
Part 1 – Computer Organization
(i) Basic Structure of Computers
Structure of a Computer System, Arithmetic Logic Unit, Control Unit, Bus
Structure, Von Neumann Architecture.
(ii) Computer Arithmetic Operations

Introduction to logic gates, Boolean algebra, Data Representation-Number system,
Fixed and Floating point numbers, Floating point representation, Signed numbers,
Binary Arithmetic, 1’s and 2’s Complements Arithmetic, Binary adder, 2’s
Complement method for multiplication, Map Simplification.
(iii) Central Processing Unit and Instructions:
General Register Organization, Types of Instructions, Instruction Formats,
Addressing Modes, Data Transfer and Manipulation, Program Control, Instruction
(iv) Memory Organization:
Characteristics of Memory Systems, Type of memories, Main memory, Static &
Dynamic memories, Secondary Memory, Performance Considerations, Cache
Memory with mapping, Virtual Memory, Address memory used pages, page
replacement, Introduction to RAID.
(v) I/O Organization
Peripheral Devices, Input-Output Interface, Asynchronous Data Transfer Modes,
Interrupt handling, Types of Interrupts, Priority Interrupt, Direct Memory Access,
Input-Output Processor (IOP), Synchronous and Asynchronous Data Transfer.
Part 2 – Operating System
(vi) Operating Systems Overview:
Overview of Computer Operating Systems, Types of OS, Functions of OS,
Protection and Security, Distributed Operating Systems, System Calls, Scheduling
algorithms, memory management, threads.
(vii) Linux Basics
Open source, Overview of Linux, Basic Linux commands, structure of kernel and
shell, Getting help, Linux File System, Some Important Directories, Inodes, Current
Working Directory, File and Directory Names, Absolute and Relative Pathnames,
Creating and Removing Directories, Changing Directories, Listing Directory
Contents, Creating and Removing Files, Copying Files and Directories, Moving and
Renaming Files and Directories, fundamental file types, Hard Links, Symbolic ( or
soft) Links, Viewing and working with large Text files – cat, more, less, head, tail,
cut commands, search text within a file, grep.
(viii) Process Management and Shell Script
Processes: Definition, Process Relationship, Process states, Process State
transitions, Process Control Block, Context switching – Threads – Concept of
multithreads, Listing Processes, Finding Processes, Foreground and background
processes, Interactive Process management tools, Sending signals to processes.
Shell Script, shell variables, control structure using variables in shell script.
(ix) Users, Groups and Permissions

Users, Groups, Linux File Security, Examining Permissions, accessing root user,
creating user and groups, Changing File Ownership, Changing Permissions –
Symbolic Method, Numeric Method, /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow and /etc/group files,
Monitoring Logins, Default Permissions, Special Permissions umask, passwd.
(x) Standard I/O and Pipes
Standard Input and Output, Redirecting Output to a File, Redirecting STDOUT to a
Program(Piping), Combining Output and Errors, Redirecting to Multiple Targets
(tee), Redirecting STDIN from a file.
(xi) Finding and Processing Files
Locate, find, Basic find Examples, find and Logical Operators, find and
Permissions, find and Access Times.

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